Nagendra Prasad Luitel

Research Advisor

Mr. Nagendra Luitel, a global mental health researcher, is the Research Advisor of Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO) Nepal, a leading mental health organization in Nepal. He holds a PhD on the integration of mental health services into the primary and community healthcare system in Nepal from the University of Amsterdam. Mr. Luitel has been involved in mental health research since 2006, and has made significant contributions in development and evaluation of community based mental health services. Over the past years, Mr. Luitel has co-led numerous multi-year and multi-national research projects that have focused in developing interventions for para-professionals such as teachers, community health workers, primary care workers, and other non-specialists. His research interests include assessment of mental health problems and service needs among the population affected by humanitarian emergencies, adaptation and validation of mental health instruments, and development and evaluation of community-based interventions to increase utilization of mental health services. He has authored more than 80 articles in the international peer-reviewed journal. Recently, Mr. Luitel has been awarded the Wellcome Trust fellowship to develop a social contact-based community intervention to improve help-seeking for depression care.

Major Publications 

1) Kim, Y., Ghimire, A., Lasater, M. E., Kohrt, B. A., Surkan, P. J., & Luitel, N. P. (2021). Feasibility of implementing a culturally adapted Prolonged Grief Disorder scale in the mental healthcare system in Nepal. Glob Ment Health (Camb), 8,

2) Jordans, M. J. D., Kohrt, B. A., Sangraula, M., Turner, E. L., Wang, X., Shrestha, P., . . .Luitel, N.P.,  van Ommeren, M. (2021). Effectiveness of Group Problem Management Plus, a brief psychological intervention for adults affected by humanitarian disasters in Nepal: A cluster randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med, 18(6),

3) Sangraula, M., Kohrt, B. A., Ghimire, R., Shrestha, P., Luitel, N. P., Van’t Hof, E., . . . Jordans, M. J. D. (2021). Development of the mental health cultural adaptation and contextualization for implementation (mhCACI) procedure: a systematic framework to prepare evidence-based psychological interventions for scaling. Glob Ment Health (Camb), 8

4) Kola, L., Kohrt, B. A., Hanlon, C., Naslund, J. A., Sikander, S., Balaji, M., Benjet, C., Cheung, E. Y. L., Eaton, J., Gonsalves, P., Hailemariam, M., Luitel, N. P., …..S., Saxena, S., Thornicroft, G. & Patel, V. (2021). COVID-19 mental health impact and responses in low-income and middle-income countries: reimagining global mental health. Lancet Psychiatry

5) Taylor Salisbury, T., Kohrt, B. A., Bakolis, I., Jordans, M. J., Hull, L., Luitel, N. P., . . . Thornicroft, G. (2021). Adaptation of the World Health Organization Electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide App for Mobile Devices in Nepal and Nigeria: Protocol for a Feasibility Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Res Protoc, 10(6)

6) Pokhrel, P., Karmacharya, R., T. Taylor Salisbury, Carswell, K., Kohrt, B.A. Jordans M.J.D., Lempp, H., Thornicroft, G., & Luitel, N.P. (2021). “Perception of healthcare workers on mobile app-based clinical guideline for the detection and treatment of mental health problems in primary care: a qualitative study in Nepal.”  BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 21(1): 21

7) Rose-Clarke, K., Hassan, E., Bk, P., Magar, J., Devakumar, D., Luitel, N. P., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2020). A cross-cultural interpersonal model of adolescent depression: A qualitative study in rural Nepal. Soc Sci Med, 270, 113623. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113623

8) Kim, Y., Rimal, D., K, C. A., Shrestha, S., Luitel, N. P., Prigerson, H. G., . . . Surkan, P. J. (2020). Understanding Nepali widows’ experiences for the adaptation of an instrument to assess Prolonged Grief Disorder. Transcult Psychiatry, 1363461520949005.

9) Surkan, P. J., Garrison-Desany, H. M., Rimal, D., Luitel, N. P., Kim, Y., Prigerson, H. G., . . . Murray, S. M. (2020). Adaptation and psychometric validation of the Prolonged Grief Disorder scale among widows in central Nepal. J Affect Disord, 281, 397-405. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.12.018

10) Luitel, N. P., Jordans, M. J. D., Subba, P., & Komproe, I. H. (2020). Perception of service users and their caregivers on primary care-based mental health services: a qualitative study in Nepal. BMC Fam Pract, 21(1), 202. doi:10.1186/s12875-020-01266-y

11) Jordans, M. J. D., Garman, E. C., Luitel, N. P., Kohrt, B. A., Lund, C., Patel, V., & Tomlinson, M. (2020). Impact of integrated district level mental health care on clinical and functioning outcomes of people with depression and alcohol use disorder in Nepal: a non-randomised controlled study. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 451. doi:10.1186/s12888-020-02832-5

12) Garrison-Desany, H. M., Lasater, M. E., Luitel, N. P., Rimal, D., Pun, D., Shrestha, S., . . . Surkan, P. J. (2020). Suicidal ideation among Nepali widows: an exploratory study of risk factors and comorbid psychosocial problems. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. doi:10.1007/s00127-020-01932-7

13) Rose-Clarke, K., Pradhan, I., Shrestha, P., B, K. P., Magar, J., Luitel, N. P., . . . Verdeli, H. (2020). Culturally and developmentally adapting group interpersonal therapy for adolescents with depression in rural Nepal. BMC Psychol, 8(1), 83. doi:10.1186/s40359-020-00452-y

14) Luitel, N. P., Breuer, E., Adhikari, A., Kohrt, B. A., Lund, C., Komproe, I. H., & Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Process evaluation of a district mental healthcare plan in Nepal: a mixed-methods case study. BJPsych Open, 6(4), e77. doi:10.1192/bjo.2020.60

15) Jordans, M. J. D., Luitel, N. P., Lund, C., & Kohrt, B. A. (2020). Evaluation of Proactive Community Case Detection to Increase Help Seeking for Mental Health Care: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychiatr Serv, 71(8), 810-815. doi:10.1176/

16) Sangraula, M., Turner, E. L., Luitel, N. P., van ‘t Hof, E., Shrestha, P., Ghimire, R., . . . Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Feasibility of Group Problem Management Plus (PM+) to improve mental health and functioning of adults in earthquake-affected communities in Nepal. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci, 29, e130. doi:10.1017/s2045796020000414

17) Aldridge, L. R., Garman, E. C., Luitel, N. P., & Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Impact of a district mental health care plan on suicidality among patients with depression and alcohol use disorder in Nepal. PLoS One, 15(4), e0231158. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0231158

18) Van’t Hof, E., Sangraula, M., Luitel, N. P., Turner, E. L., Marahatta, K., van Ommeren, M., . . . Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Effectiveness of Group Problem Management Plus (Group-PM+) for adults affected by humanitarian crises in Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials, 21(1), 343. doi:10.1186/s13063-020-04263-9

19) Rajan, S., Rathod, S. D., Luitel, N. P., Murphy, A., Roberts, T., & Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Healthcare utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures associated with depression in adults: a cross-sectional analysis in Nepal. BMC Health Serv Res, 20(1), 250. doi:10.1186/s12913-020-05094-9

20) Upadhaya, N., Regmi, U., Gurung, D., Luitel, N. P., Petersen, I., Jordans, M. J. D., & Komproe, I. H. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial support services in primary health care in Nepal: perceived facilitating factors, barriers and strategies for improvement. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 64. doi:10.1186/s12888-020-2476-x

21) Chisholm, D., Garman, E., Breuer, E., Fekadu, A., Hanlon, C., Jordans, M., Luitel NP, . . . Lund, C. (2020). Health service costs and their association with functional impairment among adults receiving integrated mental health care in five low- and middle-income countries: the PRIME cohort study. Health Policy and Planning. doi:10.1093/heapol/czz182

22) Kohrt, B. A., Turner, E. L., Rai, S., Bhardwaj, A., Sikkema, K. J., Adelekun, A., Luitel NP . . . Jordans, M. J. D. (2020). Reducing mental illness stigma in healthcare settings: Proof of concept for a social contact intervention to address what matters most for primary care providers. Soc Sci Med, 250, 112852. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112852

23) Luitel NP, German EC, Jordans MJD, Lund C (2019) Change in treatment coverage and barriers to mental health care among adults with depression and alcohol use disorder: a repeat cross sectional community survey in Nepal. BMC Public Health volume 19, Article number: 1350

24) Jordans, M. J. D., Luitel, N. P., Kohrt, B. A., Rathod, S. D., Garman, E. C., De Silva, M., . . . Lund, C. (2019). Community-, facility-, and individual-level outcomes of a district mental healthcare plan in a low-resource setting in Nepal: A population-based evaluation. PLoS Med, 16(2), e1002748. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002748

25) Jha, A. K., Ojha, S. P., Dahal, S., Sharma, P., Pant, S. B., Labh, S., . . Luitel NP, Dhimal, M. (2019). Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Nepal: Findings from the Pilot Study. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 17(2), 141-147. doi:10.33314/jnhrc.v0i0.196

26) Breuer E, Hanlon C, Bhana A, Chishom D, Silva MD, Honikman S, Jordans M, Kathree T, Kigozi F, Luitel NP, Marx M….. Lund C (2019) Partnerships in a global mental health research Programme—the example of prime. Global Social Welfare Volume 3, Issue 6, page 159-175

27) Breuer, E., Subba, P., Luitel, N., Jordans, M., De Silva, M., Marchal, B., & Lund, C. (2018). Using qualitative comparative analysis and theory of change to unravel the effects of a mental health intervention on service utilisation in Nepal. BMJ Glob Health, 3(6), e001023. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001023

28) Jordans, M. J. D., Luitel, N. P., Garman, E., Kohrt, B. A., Rathod, S. D., Shrestha, P., . . . Patel, V. (2019). Effectiveness of psychological treatments for depression and alcohol use disorder delivered by community-based counsellors: two pragmatic randomised controlled trials within primary healthcare in Nepal. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-9. doi:10.1192/bjp.2018.300

29) Kohrt, B. A., Mutamba, B. B., Luitel, N. P., Gwaikolo, W., Onyango Mangen, P., Nakku, J., . . . Baingana, F. (2019). How competent are non-specialists trained to integrate mental health services in primary care? Global health perspectives from Uganda, Liberia, and Nepal. International Review of Psychiatry, 1-17

30) Sangraula, M., Van’t Hof, E., Luitel, N. P., Turner, E. L., Marahatta, K., Nakao, J. H., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2018). Protocol for a feasibility study of group-based focused psychosocial support to improve the psychosocial well-being and functioning of adults affected by humanitarian crises in Nepal: Group Problem Management Plus (PM+). Pilot Feasibility Stud, 4, 126. doi:10.1186/s40814-018-0315-3

31) Rathod, S.D., Luitel, N.P., & Jordans, M.J.D. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use in a central Nepal district: secondary analysis of a population-based cross-sectional study. Glob Ment Health (Camb), 5, e37. doi:10.1017/gmh.2018.28

32) Chase, LE, Marahatta K, Sidgel K, Shrestha S, Gautam K, Luitel NP, Dotel BR, Samuel R, (2018) Building back better? Taking stock of the post-earthquake mental health and psychosocial response in Nepal. International journal of mental health systems, Volum 12, Issue 1, page 44

33) Rathod SD, Robert Tessa, Medhin G, Murhar V, Samudre S, Luitel NP, Selohilwe, O…..Shidhaya, R (2018) Detection and treatment initiation for depression and alcohol use disorders: facility-based cross-sectional studies in five low-income and middle-income country districts BMJ Open, Volum 8, Issue 10, e023421

34) Hendrickson ZM, Kim J, Tol, WA, Shrestha A, Kafle HM, Luitel NP, Thapa L, Surkan PJ (2018) Resilience among Nepali widows after the death of a spouse: “That was my past and now I have to see my present” Qualitative health research Volum 28, Issue 3, Pages 466-478

35) Burkey MD, Adhikari RP, Ghimire L, Kohrt BA, Wissow LS, Luitel NP, Haroz EE, Jordans MJD (2018) Validation of a cross-cultural instrument for child behavior problems: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale–Nepal version BMC psychology Volum 6, Issue 1, page 51

36) Baron, E. C., Rathod, S. D., Hanlon, C., Prince, M., Fedaku, A., Kigozi, F. Luitel NP, . . . De Silva, M. (2018). Impact of district mental health care plans on symptom severity and functioning of patients with priority mental health conditions: the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) cohort protocol. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 61

37) Breuer, E., Subba, P., Luitel, N., Jordans, M., De Silva, M., Marchal, B., & Lund, C. (2018). Using qualitative comparative analysis and theory of change to unravel the effects of a mental health intervention on service utilisation in Nepal. BMJ Glob Health, 3(6),

38) Subba P, Luitel NP, Kohrt BA and Jordans MJD et al (2017). Improving detection of mental health problems in community settings in Nepal: development and pilot testing of the community informant detection tool. Conflict and Health, 11, 28

39) Jordans, M. J. D., Aldridge, L., Luitel, N. P., Baingana, F., & Kohrt, B. A. (2017). Evaluation of outcomes for psychosis and epilepsy treatment delivered by primary health care workers in Nepal: a cohort study. Int J Ment Health Syst, 11, 70

40) Luitel NP, Jordans MJD, Kohrt BA, Rathod SD, Komproe IH: Treatment gap and barriers for mental health care: A cross-sectional community survey in Nepal. PloS one 2017, 12(8):e0183223

41) Jordans MJ, Kohrt BA, Luitel NP, Lund C, Komproe IH: Proactive community case-finding to facilitate treatment seeking for mental disorders, Nepal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2017, 95(7):531-536

42) Kim, J., Tol, W. A., Shrestha, A., Kafle, H. M., Rayamajhi, R., Luitel, N. P., . . . Surkan, P. J. (2017). Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder and Culture: Early and Prolonged Grief in Nepali Widows. Psychiatry, 80(1), 1-16

43) Jordans M, Rathod SD, Fekadu A,  Medhin G, Kigozi F, Kohrt BA,  Luitel N,  Petersen et al (2017). Suicidal ideation and behaviour among community and health care seeking populations in five low- and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional study.  Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, doi:10.1017/S2045796017000038

44) Kane JC, Luitel NP, Jordans MJ, Kohrt BA, Weissbecker I, Tol WA (2017). Mental health and psychosocial problems in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquakes: findings from a representative cluster sample survey. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2017:1-10

45) Kohrt B, Luitel NP, Acharya P, Jordans MJD (2016) Detection of depression in low resource settings: validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and cultural concepts of distress in Nepal. BMC Psychiatry (2016) 16:58

46) Rathod SD, De Silva MJ, Ssebunnya J, Breuer E, Murhar V, Luitel NP, et al. Treatment Contact Coverage for Probable Depressive and Probable Alcohol Use Disorders in Four Low- and Middle-Income Country Districts: The PRIME Cross-Sectional Community Surveys. PloS one. 2016;11(9):e0162038.

47) Kohrt BA, Worthman CM, Adhikari RP, Luitel NP, Arevalo JM, Ma J, et al. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016;113(29):8156-61

48) Acharya B, Maru D, Schwarz R, Citrin D, Tenpa J, Hirachan S, Luitel NP et al. Partnerships in mental healthcare service delivery in low-resource settings: developing an innovative network in rural Nepal. Globalization and health. 2017;13(1):2.

49) Baron EC, Hanlon C, Mall S, Honikman S, Breuer E, Kathreen T, Luitel NP. Nakku J et al (2016) Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis.  BMC Health Services Research (2016) 16:53

50) Kohrt B, Jordans MJD, Rai S, Shrestha P, Luitel NP, Ramaiya MK, Singla DR, Patel V (2015). Therapist competence in global mental health: Development of the ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) rating scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy (2015) 11-21

51) Jordans MJD, Kohrt BA, Luitel NP, Komproe IH, Lund C (2015). Accuracy of proactive case finding for mental disorders by community informants in Nepal. The British Journal of Psychiatry 207(6):501-6

52) Jordans MJD, Luitel NP, Pokhrel P, Patel V (2015) Development and pilot testing of a mental healthcare plan in Nepal. The British Journal of Psychiatry DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.153718

53) Makan A, Fekadu A, Murhar V, Luitel NP, Kathree T, Ssebunaya J, Lund C (2015) Stakeholder analysis of the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): baseline findings. Int J Ment Health Syst (2015) 9:27

54) Chisholm D, Burman-Roy S, Fekadu A, Kathree T, Kizza D, Luitel NP, Petersen I, Shidhaye R et al (2015) Estimating the cost of implementing district mental healthcare plans in five low- and middle-income countries: the PRIME study. The British Journal of Psychiatry s1–s8. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.153866

55) Luitel NP, Jordans MJD, Adhikari A, Upadhaya N et al (2015). Mental Health Care in Nepal: Current Situation and Challenges for Development of a District Mental Health Care Plan. Conflict and Health 6;9

56) Adhikari R, Upadhaya N, Gurung D, Luitel NP, Bukery MD, Kohrt BA, Jordans MJD (2015). Perceived behavioural problems of school aged children in rural Nepal: a qualitative study. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health 9:25.

57) Adhikari R, Kohrt BA, Luitel NP, Upadhaya N, Gurung D, Jordans MJD (2014). Protective and risk factors of psychosocial wellbeing related to the reintegration of former child soldiers in Nepal, Intervention 12, (3), 367 – 378

58) Jordans MJD, Kaufman A, Brenman NF, Adhikari RP, Luitel NP, Tol WA, Komproe I (2014). Suicide in South Asia:  scoping review. BMC Psychiatry (2014) 14:358

59) Upadhaya N, Luitel NP, Koirala S et al (2014). the role of mental health and psychosocial support in nongovernmental organizations: reflections from post conflict Nepal, Intervention, 12, Supplement 1, 113 – 128

60) Brenman N, Luitel NP, Mall S, Jordans MJD (2014).  Demand and access to mental health services: a qualitative formative study in Nepal. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:22

61) Kohrt B, Upadhaya N, Luitel N, Maharjan SM, Kaiser BN, MacFarlane E, Khan N (2014).  Authorship in Global Mental Health Research: Recommendations for Collaborative Approaches to Writing and Publishing, Annals of Global Health (2014), doi: 10.1016/j.aogh.2014.04.007.

62) Mendenhall E, Silva MD, Hanlon C, Petersen I, Shidhaye R, Jordans M, Luitel NP, Ssebunnya Ji et al (2014). Acceptability and feasibility of using non-specialist health workers to deliver mental health care: Experiences from the PRIME district sites in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa, and Uganda. Social Science and Medicines 118 (2014) 33-42

63) Breuer E, De Shilva M, Abebaw Fekadu, Luitel NP, Murhar V et al (2014). Using workshops to develop Theories of Change in five low and middle income countries: lessons from the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME, International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2014, 8:15 doi: 10.1186/1752-4458-8-15

64) Hanlon C, Luitel  NP, Kathree T, Murhar V, Shrivasta S, et al: Challenges and Opportunities for Implementing Integrated Mental Health Care: A District Level Situation Analysis from Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries. PLoS ONE  2014, 9(2): e88437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088437

65) Jordans MJD, Luitel NP, Tomlinson M, Komproe IH (2013), Setting priorities for mental health care in Nepal: a formative study. BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:332.

66) Jordans MJD, Tol WA, Susanty D, Ntamatumba P, Luitel NP, et al. (2013) Implementation of a Mental

Health Care Package for Children in Areas of Armed Conflict: A Case Study from Burundi, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Sudan. PLoS Med 10(1): e1001371. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001371

67) Luitel NP, Jordans MJD, Murphy A, Roberts R, & McCambridge J (2013). Prevalence and patterns of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption assessed using the AUDIT among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol. 0, No. 0, pp. 1–7, 2013

 68) Reiffers R; Dahal RP; Koirala S; Gerritzen R; Upadhaya N; Luitel NP et al (2013). Psychosocial support system for Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Intervention 2013,Volume 0, Number 0, Page 1 – 11

69) Luitel NP, Jordans MJD, Sapkota RP, Tol WA et al (2012). Conflict and Mental Health: Cross Sectional Epidemiological Study in Nepal, Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2013) 48:183–193

70) Jordans MJD, Luitel NP, Poudyal B, Tol WA, Komproe IH (2012). Evaluation of a brief training on mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies: a pre- and post-assessment in Nepal. Pre-hospital Disaster Med 27 (3):1-4

71) Kohrt BA, Jordans MJD, Tol WA, Luitel NP, Maharjan SM, Upadhaya N (2011). Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal.  BMC Psychiatry 2011, 11:127 doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-127

72) Thomas FC, Roberts B, Luitel NP, Upadhaya N and Tol WA (2011).  Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal. Conflict and Health 5:20 doi: 10.1186/1752-1505-5-20

73) Ghimire L, Smith WCS, Teijlingen ERV, Dahal S, Luitel NP (2011). Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal. BMC Women’s Health 2011, 11:42 doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-11-42

74) Jordans MJD, Komproe IH, Tol WA, Kohrt BA, Luitel NP, Macy R, De Jong, Joop T.V.M (2010). Evaluation of a Classroom-based Psychosocial Intervention in Conflict-Affected Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, The Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02209.